The instrumental case is distinguished by the interrogatives:
(z) kim? – with who? / with whom?
(z) czym? – with what?
1. We express „company” by using the instrumental case:
Idę z moim bratem. I’m going with my brother.
Piję herbatę z miodem. I’m drinking tea with honey.
2. In sentences, where the noun following the verb BYĆ refers to the subject (especially when expressing nationality, profession or relationship), the instrumental case is used:
Grażyna jest instruktorką.
On jest moim bratem.
However, notice that if we use the word” to”, the nominative case is used and the verb is usually omitted.
Grażyna to (jest) instruktorka jogi. Grażyna is a yoga instructor.
Moje hobby to (jest) muzyka. My hobby is music.
Again, if the word „to” is omitted and the verb „być” is used, then the istrumental case is followed.
Grażyna to jest instruktorką jogi.
Remember not to use the nominative case after „to be” in these sort of constructions.
Anna jest kobietą. Anna is a woman.
Not: Anna jest kobieta.
We also use the instrumental case for expressing the tools or instruments we use and also with combinations of other verbs, but we will cover this all soon 🙂
This is my usual breakfast. Strong, black coffee and toast with jam. I love jam!
I also often eat porridge or a salad, it depends.
As you know, I am a yoga instructor so my breakfast is light and healthy.
I also like tea with honey. Honey is very healthy and tasty!
Each morning I drink mineral water. Sometimes with lemon or…exactly…honey!
In the morning I also eat an apple or pear. I love fruit.